According to the Canadian Constitution in 1982, everyone has the right to freedom of conscience and religion; freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication; freedom of peaceful assembly; and freedom of association. The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights enshrined this principle in its preamble: ‘recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights and freedoms of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world’. Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights stated that ‘’Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinions, national or social origin, property, birth or another status’’. Furthermore, ‘’no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty’’. Therefore, the rights and freedoms of the human person are must be protected by international human rights law. The rights and freedoms go to the heart of human identity, including the ban on discrimination to reach rights and freedoms, such as the ban on torture. The ban is enshrined in Article 7 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: ‘’ No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In particular, no one shall be subjected without his/her free consent to medical or scientific experimentation’’. In addition, the rights and freedoms for human identity contain the rights of property, the rights of social activity, the rights and freedom of movement, public hearings and political rights. In fact, the lack of access to these rights is a violation of human rights, which fully defined in Article 2 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 7 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
People in Roas Al-Jabal have been living with Marginalisation since 1970, particularly marginalised in land and property, employment, social activity, free movement, public hearings and political rights. Access to housing is part of basic human rights and the State cannot deprive a person of access to housing belonging to his/her previous families. At the same time, the States should provide sanitation water, drainage, gas, electricity, telephone and TV cables along access to a property. However, the Omani authorities use the policy of deprivation people in Roas Al-Jabal who migrated to the United Arab Emirates due to the Omani discrimination in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s of accessing their families’ property. The Omani authorities also offering a lack access to the citizens of Roas Al-Jabal of accessing the basic rights for their property, such as sanitation water, drainage and other necessary rights, although those people are Omani citizens. In fact, the right to property is controversial right because it is central to the human rights concept. Therefore, demolishing properties’ without reasonable grounds is a violation of human rights. A large number of people in Roas Al-Jabal often migrate without their will to other cities in Oman and UAE in order to obtain employment opportunities rather than having job opportunities in their region. In fact, this is an Omani policy in order to impoverish the people and displace them from their historical land. For example, a majority of people in Roas Al-Jabal migrated to UAE rather staying in their historical region; hence, this policy caused the population in Roas Al-Jabal to be decreased massively. Moreover, people in Roas Al-Jabal suffer from cultural violations in their countries because of the Omani policy, for example, preventing Roas Al-Jabal’s dress in administrative institutions and public places in order to change the culture of Roas Al-Jabal’s society in which very close to the society in the United Arab Emirates than the society in Oman. These activities are part of a basic of human rights designed to help to promote human rights in each society, so, people in such societies should not facing discrimination and conflict for accessing this right. Civil and political rights are in fact basic rights for every human being and all governments must avoid violating the rights and freedoms of people for their political and civil life. However, people in Roas Al-Jabal are not allowed to have a political meeting or social activity to protect their dignity and rights, or demanding the Omani authorities to have more freedoms and rights in their historical land. This policy, in fact, caused many people in Roas Al-Jabal, particularly activists groups or the Royal family in the region to be migrated to the United Arab Emirates.
• The Oman authorities have already signed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Hence, Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights obliged Oman to offer people to receive all the rights and freedoms without distinction of race, colour, sex, language, and religion, political or other opinions. • Oman is also obliged to protect people from any discrimination because Oman is already signed the right to Equality and Non-discrimination except the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women. • The Omani authorities’ should ban torture and other inhuman treatments against political and cultural activists in Roas Al-Jabal. • The Omani authorities should offer the right to liberty and security of person, and ban of arbitrary arrest or detention against the activists in the region.